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Select a research topic according to your area of interestMake a research proposal including general background, problem statement, objectives, types of research to be used, the sources of the data, and so forth.Note:Please send me the 3 research options before you start writing the paper, so I could choose 1 of the topic Please find the detailed proposal guideline and example in the attachment. The guideline include the material for both CLA 1 paper and CLA 2 paper. For CLA 1 paper (this question), please only take a look at the part with black letters. Please include Introduction and Conclusion in the paper Please include at least 7 peer reviewed articles (Article from Proquest is most preferable) and text-book as the reference. Textbook Link: https://books.google.com/books?id=veM4gQPnWHgC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_atb#v=onepage&q&f=false Please find the grading rubric in the attachment Please use APA 7th for the paper
Select a research topic according to your area of interest Make a research proposal including general background, problem statement, objectives, types of research to be used, the sources of the data,
1 Guided Imagery and Progressi ve Muscle Relaxation in Group Psychotherapy Hannah K. Greenbaum Department of Psychology , The George Washington University PSYC 3170 : Clinical Psychology Dr. Tia M. Benedetto October 1 , 2019 2 Guided Imagery and Progressi ve Muscle Relaxation in Group Psychotherapy A majority of Americans experience stress in their daily lives ( American Psychological Association , 2017 ). Thus , an important goal of psychological research is to evaluate techniques that promote stress reduction and relaxation. Two techniques that have been associated with reduced stress and increased relaxation in psychotherapy contexts are guided imagery and prog ressive muscle relaxation ( McGuigan & Lehrer , 2007 ). Guided imagery aids individuals in connecting their internal and external experiences, allowing them, for example, to feel calmer externally because they practice thinking about calming imagery. Progress ive muscle relaxation involves diaphragmatic breathing and the tensing and releasing of 16 major muscle groups ; together these behaviors lead individuals to a more relaxed state ( Jacobson , 1938 ; Trakhtenberg , 2008 ). Guided imagery and progressive muscle re laxation are both cognitive behavioral techniques ( Yalom & Leszcz , 2005 ) in which individuals focus on the relationship among thoughts, emotions, and behaviors (White , 2000 ). Group psychotherapy effectively promotes positive treatment outcomes in patients in a cost -effective way . Its efficacy is in part attributable to variables unique to the group experience of therapy as compared with individual psychotherapy (Bottomley , 1996 ; Yalom & Leszcz , 2005 ). That is, t he group format helps participants feel accepted and better understand their common struggles ; at the same time, interaction s with group members provide social support and model s of positive behavior ( Yalom & Leszcz , 2005 ). Thus, it is useful to examine how stress reduction and relaxation can be enhanced in a group context. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the research base on guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation in group psychotherapy contexts. I provide overviews of both guided imagery and progre ssive muscle relaxation , including theoretical foundations and 3 historical context . Then I examine guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation as used on their own as well as in combination as part of group psychotherapy (see Baider et al. , 1994 , for more). Throughout the review , I highlight themes in the research. Finally, I end by pointing out limitations in the existing literature and explor ing potential directions for future research . Guided Imagery Features of Guided Imagery Guided imagery involves a person visualizing a mental image and engaging each sense (e.g., sight, smell, touch) in the process. Guided imagery was first examined in a psychological context in the 1960s, when the behavior theorist Joseph Wolpe helped pioneer the use of rel axation techniques such as aversive imagery, exposure, and imaginal flooding in behavior therapy ( Achterberg , 1985 ; Utay & Miller , 2006 ). Patients learn to relax their bodies in the presence of stimuli that previously distressed them, to the point where fu rther exposure to the stimuli no longer provokes a negative response ( Achterberg , 1985 ). Contemporary research supports the efficacy of guided imagery interventions for treating medical, psychiatric, and psychological disorders (Utay & Miller , 2006 ). Guided imagery is typically used to pursue treatment goals such as improved relaxation, sports achievement, and pain reduction. Guided imagery techniques a re often paired with breathing techniques and other forms of relaxation, such as mindfulness (see Freebird Meditations , 2012 ). The evidence is sufficient to call guided imagery an effective, evidence -based treatment for a variety of stress – related psycholo gical concerns (Utay & Miller, 2006) . Guided Imagery in Group Psychotherapy Guided imagery exercises improve treatment outcomes and prognosis in group psychotherapy contexts (Skovholt & Thoen , 1987 ). Lange (1982 ) underscored two such benefits 4 by showing (a) the role of the group psychotherapy leader in facilitat ing reflection on the guided imagery experience, including difficulties and stuck points , and (b) the benefit s achieved by social comparison of guided imagery experienc es between group members. Teaching techniques and reflecting on the group process are unique component s of guided imagery received in a group context (Yalom & Leszcz , 2005 ). Empirical research focused on guided imagery interventions supports the efficacy of the technique with a variety of populations within hospital settings , with positive outcomes for individuals diagnosed with depression, anxiety, and eating disorders (Utay & Miller , 2006 ). Guided imagery and relaxati on techniques have even been found to “r educe distress and allow the immune system to function more effectively” (Trakhtenberg , 2008 , p. 850 ). For example, Holden -Lund (1988 ) examined effects of a guided imagery intervention on surgical stress and wound he aling in a group of 24 patients. Patients listened to guided imagery record ings and reported reduced state anxiety, lower cortisol levels following surgery, and less irritation in wound healing compared with a control group. Holden -Lund concluded that the guided imagery recordings contribut ed to improved surgical recovery. It would be interesting to see how the results might differ if guided imagery was practiced continually in a group context. Guided imagery has also been shown to reduce stress, length of hospital stay, and symptoms related to medical and psychological conditions (Scherwitz et al. , 2005 ). For example, Ball et al. (2003 ) conducted guided imagery in a group psychotherapy format with 11 children (ages 5 –18) experiencing recu rrent abdominal pain. Children in the treatment group (n = 5) participated in four weekly group psychotherapy sessions where guided imagery techniques were implemented. Data collected via pain diaries and parent and child psychological surveys showed that patients reported a 67% decrease in pain. Despite a small sample size, which contribute d to 5 low statistical power, the researchers conclude d that guided imagery in a group psychotherapy format was effective in reducing pedi atric recurrent abdominal pain. However, in the majority of guided imagery studies, researchers have not evaluated the technique in the context of traditional group psychot herapy. Rather, in these studies participants usually met once in a group to learn guided imagery and then practiced guided imagery individually on their own (see Menzies et al. , 2014 , for more). Th us, it is unknown whether guided imagery would have differ ent effects if implemented on an ongoing basis in group psychotherapy. Progressive Muscle Relaxation Features of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Progressive muscle relaxation involves diaphragmatic or deep breathing and the tensing and releasing of muscles i n the body (Jacobson , 1938 ). Edmund Jacobson developed progressive muscle relaxation in 1929 ( as cited in Peterson et al. , 2011 ) and directed participants to practice progressive muscle relaxation several times a week for a year . After examining progressive muscle relaxation as a n intervention for stress or anxiety, Joseph Wolpe ( 1960; as cited in Peterson et al. , 2011 ) theorized t hat relaxation was a promising treatment . In 1973, Bernstein and Borkovec created a manual for helping profession als to teach their clients progressive muscle relaxation , thereby bringing progressive muscle relaxation into the fold of interventions used in cognitive behavior therapy. In its current state, p rogressive muscle relaxation is often paired with relaxation training and described within a relaxation framework (see Freebird Meditations , 2012 , for more ). Research on the use of progressive muscle rela xation for stress reduction has demonstrated the efficacy of the method (McGuigan & Lehrer , 2007 ). As clients learn how to 6 tense and release different muscle groups, the physical relaxation achieved then influences psychological processes (McCallie et al. , 2006 ). For example, progressive muscle relaxation can help alleviate tension headaches, insomnia, pain, and irritable bowel syndrome. This research demonstrates that relaxing the body can also help relax the mind and lead to physical benefits . Pro gressive Muscle Relaxation in Group Psychotherapy Limited, but compelling, research has examined progressive muscle relaxation within group psychotherapy. Progressive muscle relaxation has been used in outpatient and inpatient hospital settings to reduce s tress and physical symptoms (Peterson et al. , 2011 ). For example, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs integrate s progressive muscle relaxation into therapy skills groups ( Hardy , 2017 ). The goal is for group members to practice progressive muscle relaxation throughout their inpatient stay and then continu e the practice at home to promote ongoing relief of symptoms (Yalom & Leszcz , 2005 ). Yu (2004 ) examined the effects of multimodal progressive muscle relaxation on psychological distress in 121 elderly patients with heart failure. Participants were randomized into experimental and control groups. The experimental group received biweekly group sessions on progressive muscle relaxation, as well as tape -directed self -practice and a revision workshop. The control group received follow -up phone calls as a placebo. Results indicated that the experimental group exhibited significant improvement in reports of psychological distress compared with the control gro up. Although this study incorporated a multimodal for m of progressive muscle relaxation , the experimental group met biweekly in a group format; thus, the results may be app licable to group psychotherapy. Progressive muscle relaxation has also been examined as a stress -reduction intervention with large groups, albeit not therapy groups. Rausch et al. (2006 ) exposed a group of 387 college 7 students to 20 min of either meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, or waiting as a control condition. Students exposed to meditation and progressive muscle relaxation recovered more quickly from subsequent stressors than did students in the control co ndition. Rausch et al. (2006 ) concluded the following: A mere 20 min of these group interventions was effective in reducing anxiety to normal levels . . . m erely 10 min of the interventions allowed [the high -anxiety group ] to recover from the stressor. Th us, brief interventions of meditation and progressive muscle relaxation may be effective for those with clinical levels of anxiety and for stress recovery when exposed to brief, transitory stressors. (p. 287) Thus, even small amounts of progressive muscle relaxation can be beneficial for people experiencing anxiety. Guided Imagery and Progressive Muscle Relaxation in Group Psychotherapy Combinations of relaxation training techniques, including guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation, have been show n to improve psychiatric and medical symptoms when delivered in a group psychotherapy context ( Bottomley , 1996 ; Cunningham & Tocco , 1989 ). The research supports the existence of immediate and long -term positive effects of guided imagery and progressive mus cle relaxation delivered in group psychotherapy ( Baider et al. , 1994 ). For example, Cohen and Fried (2007 ) examined the effect of group psychotherapy on 114 women diagnosed with breast cancer. The researchers randomly assigned participants to three groups: (a) a control group, (b) a relaxation psychotherapy group that received guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation interventions, or (c) a cognitive behavioral therapy group. Participants reported less psychological distress in both intervention gro ups compared with the control group, and participants in the relaxation psychotherapy group reported reduced 8 symptoms related to sleep and fatigue. The researchers concluded that relaxation training using guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation in group psychotherapy is effective for relieving distress in women diagnosed with breast cancer. These results further support the utility of guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation within the group psychotherapy modality. Conclusion Limitations of Existing Research Research on the use of guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation to achieve stress reduction and relaxation is compelling but has significant limitations. P sychotherapy groups that implement guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation are typically homogeneous, time limited, and brief ( Yalom & Leszcz , 2005 ). Relaxation training in group psychotherapy typically includes only one or two group meetings focused on these techniques (Yalom & Leszcz , 2005 ); therea fter, participants are usually expected to practice the techniques by themselves (see Menzies et al., 2014). Future research should address how these relaxation techniques can assist people in diverse groups and how the impact of relaxation techniques may be amplified if treatments are delivered in the group setting over time. Future research should also examine differences in inpatient versus outpatient psychotherapy groups as well as structured versus unstructured groups. The majority of research on the u se of guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation with psychotherapy groups has used unstructured inpatient groups (e.g., groups in a hospital setting). However, inpatient and outpatient groups are distinct, as are structured versus unstructured group s, and each format offers potential advantages and limitations ( Yalom & Leszcz , 2005 ). For example, an advantage of an unstructured group is that the group leader can reflect the group process and focus on the “here and now ,” which may improve the efficacy of the relaxation techniques ( Yalom & Leszcz , 9 2005 ). However, research also has supported the efficacy of structured psychotherapy groups for patients with a variety of medical, psychiatric, and psychological disorders ( Hashim & Zainol , 2015; see also Baider et al. , 1994 ; Cohen & Fried , 2007 ). Empirical research assessing these interventions is limited, and further research is recommended. Directions for Future Research There are additional considerations when interpreting the results of previous s tudies and planning for future studies of these techniques. For example, a lack of control groups and small sample sizes have contributed to low statistical power and limited the generalizability of findings. Although the current data support the efficacy of psychotherapy groups that integrate guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation, further research with control groups and larger samples would bolster confidence in the efficacy of these interventions. In order to recruit larger samples and to stud y participants over time, researchers will need to overcome challenges of participant selection and attrition. These factors are especially relevant within hospital settings because high patient turnover rates and changes in medical status may contribute t o changes in treatment plans that affect group participation (L. Plum, personal communication, March 17 , 2019). Despite these challenges, continued research examining guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation interventions within group psychotherapy is warranted ( Scherwitz et al. , 2005 ). The results thus far are promising, and further investigation has the potential to make relaxation techniques that can improve people’s lives more effective and widely available. 10 References Achterberg , J. (1985 ). Imagery in healing . Shambhala Publications . American Psychological Association . (2017 ). Stress in America: The state of our nation . https://www.apa.org/news/press/release s/stress/2017/state -nation.pdf Baider , L. , Uziely , B. , & Kaplan De -Nour , A. (1994 ). Progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery in cancer patients . General Hospital Psychiatry , 16 (5) , 340 –347 . https://doi.org/10.1016/0163 -8343(94)90021 -3 Ball , T. M. , Shapiro , D. E. , Monheim , C. J. , & Weydert , J. A. (2003 ). A pilot study of the use of guided imagery for the treatment of recurrent abdomina l pain in children. Clinical Pediatrics , 42 (6) , 527 –532 . https://doi.org/10.1177/000992280304200607 Bernstein , D. A. , & Borkovec , T. D. (1973 ). Progressive relaxation training: A manual for the helping professions . Research Press . Bottomley , A. (1996 ). Group cognitive behavioural therapy interventions with cancer patients: A review of the literature . European Journal of Cancer Cure , 5(3) , 143 –146 . https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365 -2354.1996.tb00225.x Cohen , M. , & Fried , G. (2007 ). Comparing relaxation training and cognitive -behavioral group therapy for women with breast cancer . Research o n Social Work Practice , 17 (3) , 313 – 323 . https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731506293741 Cunningham , A. J. , & Tocco , E. K. (1989 ). A randomized trial of group psychoeducational therapy for cancer patients . Patient Education and Counseling , 14 (2) , 101 –114 . https://doi.org/10.1016/0738 -3991(89)90046 -3 Freebird Meditations . (2012 , June 17 ). Progressive muscle relaxation guided meditation [Video ]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fDZI -4udE_o 11 Hardy , K. (2017 , October 8). Mindfulness is plentiful in “The post -traumatic insomnia workbook.” Veterans Training Support Center . http://bit.ly/2D6ux8U Hashim , H. A. , & Zainol , N. A. (2015 ). Changes in emotional distress, short term memory, and sustained attention following 6 and 12 sessions of progressive muscle relaxation training in 10 –11 years old primary school children . Psychology, Health & Medicine , 20 (5) , 623 – 628 . https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2014.1002851 Holden -Lund , C. (1988 ). Effects of relaxation with guided imagery on surgical stress and wound healing . Research in Nursing & Health , 11 (4) , 235 –244 . http://doi.org/dztcdf Jacobson , E. (1938 ). Progressive relaxation (2nd ed. ). University of Chicago Press . Lange , S. (1982 , August 23 –27 ). A realistic look at guided fantasy [Paper presentation]. American Psychologica l Association 90th Annual Convention , Washington, DC . McCallie , M. S. , Blum , C. M. , & Hood , C. J. (2006 ). Progressive muscle relaxation . Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment , 13 (3) , 51 –66 . http://doi.org/b54qm3 McGuigan , F. J. , & Lehrer , P. M. (2007 ). Progressive relaxation: Origins, principles, and clinical applications . In P. M. Lehrer , R. L. Woolfolk , & W. E. Sime (Eds. ), Principles and practice of stress management (3rd ed. , pp. 57 –87 ). Guilford Press . Menzies , V. , Lyon , D. E. , Elswick , R. K. , Jr. , McCain , N. L. , & Gray , D. P. (2014 ). Effects of guided imagery on biobehavioral factors in women with fibromyalgia . Journal of Behavioral Medicine , 37 (1) , 70 –80 . https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865 -012 -9464 -7 Peterson , A. L. , Hatch , J. P. , Hryshko -Mullen , A. S. , & Cigrang , J. A. (2011 ). Relaxation training with and without muscle contraction in subjects with psychophysiological disorders . Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research , 16 (3–4), 138 –147 . https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751 -9861.2011.00070.x 12 Rausch , S. M. , Gramli ng , S. E. , & Auerbach , S. M. (2006 ). Effects of a single session of large – group meditation and progressive muscle relaxation training on stress reduction, reactivity, and recovery . International Journal of Stress Management , 13 (3) , 273 –290 . https://doi.org/10.1037/1072 -5245.13.3.273 Scherwitz , L. W. , McHenry , P., & Herrero , R. (2005 ). Interactive guided imagery therapy with medical patients: Predictors of health outcomes . The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine , 11 (1) , 69 –83 . https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2005.11.69 Skovholt , T. M. , & Thoen , G. A. (1987 ). Mental imagery and parenthood decision making . Journal of Counseling & Development , 65 (6) , 315 –316 . http://doi.org/fzmtjd Trakhtenberg , E. C. (2008 ). The effects of guided imagery on the immune system: A critical review . International Journal of Neuroscience , 118 (6) , 839 –855 . http://doi.org/fxfsbq Utay , J., & Miller , M. (2006 ). Guided imagery as an effective therapeutic technique: A brief review of its history and efficacy research . Journal of Instructional Psychology , 33 (1) , 40 –43 . White , J. R. (2000 ). Introduction . In J. R. White & A. S. Freeman (Eds. ), Cognitive -behavioral group therapy: For specific problems and populations (pp. 3–25 ). American Psychological Association . https://doi.org/10.1037/10352 -001 Yalom , I. D. , & Leszcz , M. (2005 ). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy (5th ed. ). Basic Books . Yu , S. F. (2004 ). Effects of progressive muscle relaxation training on psychological and health – related quality of life outcomes in elderly patients with heart failure (Publication No. 3182156 ) [Doctoral dissertation, The Chinese University of Hong Kong]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Select a research topic according to your area of interest Make a research proposal including general background, problem statement, objectives, types of research to be used, the sources of the data,
References and in-text citations in APA Style (7th ed.) When it comes to citing sources, more guidelines have been added that make citing online sources easier and clearer. In total, 114 examples are provided, ranging from books and periodicals to audiovisuals and social media. For each reference category, an easy template is provided to help you understand and apply the citation guidelines. The biggest changes in the 7th edition are: The publisher location is no longer included in the reference. Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. Simon & Schuster. The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is now shortened right from the first citation. You only include the first author’s name and “et al.”. (Taylor, Kotler, Johnson, & Parker, 2018) (Taylor et al., 2018) Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors (instead of 7) should be provided in the reference list. Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S., Turner, S. T., … Lee, L. H. (2018). Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S., Turner, S. T., Lewis, F., Lee, L. H., Cox, G., Harris, H. L., Martin, P., Gonzalez, W. L., Hughes, W., Carter, D., Campbell, C., Baker, A. B., Flores, T., Gray, W. E., Green, G., … Nelson, T. P. (2018). DOIs are formatted the same as URLs. The label “DOI:” is no longer necessary. doi: 10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449 https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449 URLs are no longer preceded by “Retrieved from,” unless a retrieval date is needed. The website name is included (unless it’s the same as the author), and web page titles are italicized. Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127 Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127 For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g. Kindle) is no longer included in the reference, and the publisher is included. Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellites [Kindle version]. https:/doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2 Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellites. Springer Nature. https:/doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2 Clear guidelines are provided for including contributors other than authors and editors. For example, when citing a podcast episode, the host of the episode should be included; for a TV series episode, the writer and director of that episode are cited. Dozens of examples are included for online source types such as podcast episodes, social media posts, and YouTube videos. The use of emojis and hashtags is also explained. Inclusive and bias-free language Writing inclusively and without bias is the new standard, and APA’s new publication manual contains a separate chapter on this topic. The guidelines provided by APA help authors reduce bias around topics such as gender, age, disability, racial and ethnic identity, and sexual orientation, as well as being sensitive to labels and describing individuals at the appropriate level of specificity. Some examples include: The singular “they” or “their” is endorsed as a gender-neutral pronoun. A researcher’s career depends on how often he or she is cited. A researcher’s career depends on how often they are cited. Instead of using adjectives as nouns to label groups of people, descriptive phrases are preferred. The poor People living in poverty Instead of broad categories, you should use exact age ranges that are more relevant and specific. People over 65 years old People in the age range of 65 to 75 years old APA Paper format In the 7th edition, APA decided to provide different paper format guidelines for professional and student papers. For both types a sample paper is included. Some notable changes include: Increased flexibility regarding fonts: options include Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucida Sans Unicode 10, Times New Roman 12, and Georgia 11. The running head on the title page no longer includes the words “Running head:”. It now contains only a page number and the (shortened) paper title. Running head: THE EFFECT OF GOOGLE ON THE INTERNET THE EFFECT OF GOOGLE ON THE INTERNET The running head is omitted in student papers (unless your instructor tells you otherwise). Heading levels 3-5 are updated to improve readability. Mechanics of style In terms of style, not much has changed in the 7th edition. In addition to some updated and better explained guidelines, there are two notable changes: Use only one space after a period at the end of a sentence. Use double quotation marks to refer to linguistic examples (e.g. APA endorses the use of the singular pronoun “they”) instead of italics. APA endorses the use of the singular pronoun they APA endorses the use of the singular pronoun “they”
Select a research topic according to your area of interest Make a research proposal including general background, problem statement, objectives, types of research to be used, the sources of the data,
1 BUSINESS RESEARCH PROPOSAL GUIDELINES The goal of business research is to solve problems within an organization. Below are the guidelines for the proposal. Please be certain to follow the guidelines carefully. PLEASE NOTE; All written work must be in the correct APA 7 th edition format . Use the provided template. • Never identify a specific person, business, company, corpo ration, or city by name. • Do not refer to yourself in the first person (I, my, etc.), except in the last section (#7) • The paper should be written in the future tense, except the last section • For this paper, you may use the term “data” as a singular or plura l term. Proofread your paper carefully for spelling and grammatical errors, use APA 7th edition formatting . Format: (an abbreviated example is at the end of this document) 1. Statement of Purpose : Write a brief statement about the purpose of your research study. Think in terms of why your company needs this research. You also need to support this statement with why it needs to be done. Ex. The purpose of this study is to determine customer satisfac tion with current Widget s. Determining customer satisfaction with the current Widget s will guide changes in Widget design and production. 2. Description of the Problem : Identify and describe the problem that you have observed in the literature . Your observa tions must be supported by citations. Be specific and thorough in your description. Add data to support your assertions (i.e.: number of wickets that are defective, etc.) . Include 2 – 3 research questions that will be used to guide your study. Ex. Widget sales have decreased by 10% per year between 2015 – 2019 (Jones, 2020). Along with decreased sales, there has been an increase in Widget repairs and returns at a rate of 5% per year during this same period (Smith, 2019) . Other, corporations began producing Widget like products and are increasing their sales base (Harrison & Sanchez, 2018) . Research questions that will be used to investigate this problem are: 1. Is there a correlation between customer satisfaction and decreased sales between 2015 and 2 019? H0 There is no correlation between customer satisfaction and decreased sales between 2015 and 2019. H1 There is a correlation between customer satisfaction and decreased sales between 2015 and 2019. 2. Is there a correlation between customer satisfacti on and increased Widget repairs and returns between 2015 and 2019? 2 H0 There is no correlation between customer satisfaction and increased Widget repairs and returns between 2015 and 2019. H1 There is a correlation between customer satisfaction and increa sed Widget repairs and returns between 2015 and 2019. This is an abbreviated description as an example . Your description should be longer and more detailed. 3. Mini -Literature Review : Summarize peer reviewed sources that pertain to the problem that you will study. For each resource, you must describe how the research is relevant to your study (including specific ideas you might be taking from that research and incorporating into your ow n research design) . You must use at least 6 different resources for the literature review. You are stating what the literature says about the subject. Things to consider for this example : What does the literature say about decreases in sales, increases i n repairs and returns. What does the literature say about their impact on customer satisfaction? What does the literature say about Widget production? 4. Description of your Project – Procedures : *This section is longe st and should be typed with the followin g subsection headings: Setting: Describe the organization (demographics etc.) where the research will take place. Describe the specific department , area or site that is affected . Ex. This study will take place at XYZ corporation. It will be restricted to the Widget development department. Participants: Describe the participants targeted for the study (sample size, demographics, how they will be chosen); this includes information regarding any comparison group if that is part of the study. Remember, do not identify the site or any individuals by name. Participants (exact number, gender, age/department, how they will be selected) Ex. All participants will be past customers of the XYZ corporation. Only customers that have purchased at least 1 Widget between 2013 and 2019 will be invited to participate in this study. Widgets may only be purchased by adults between the ages of 18 – 65. There is no gender, race or religious criteria associated with this study. XYZ corporation has 132,645 customers that purchased Widgets between 2013 and 2019 (Harrison & Boyd, 2020). Instruments: Describe the measures used to collect your data. Specify if each instrument will be designed by you (the researcher) or have been designed by another person/company. If it was researcher -designed, describe 3 the process you will use to develop the instrument . Provide citations to support why you are using the questions you chose. Copies of the actual instrument(s) must be included in the appendix. Chronology: This is where you present a delineation of the precise time frame for implementing the project as we ll as collecting/analyzing all data. Should be a step by step account of how you will recruit participant and implement the instrument. Provide a copy of a simple Gantt chart in the appendix. Data Collection: What qualitative and/or quantitative data will you collect to determine your project’s impact? How will you collect it? Describe any instrument (s) you will use to collect the data such as surveys, interview questions, etc. Draft copies of the researcher -designed instruments must be attached to this proposal as appendices. In the body of the paper, refer to where these items can be found in the appendix. 1. Is there a correlation between customer satisfaction and decreased sales between 2015 and 2019? To investigate this question the researcher will use a 15 -question survey (see appendix B) to collect data on past customer satisfaction, purchases, use of Widgets. The survey will be issued to customers that purchased Widgets between 2013 and 2019 assuming that a decrease in sales may b e due to possible impacts in customer satisfaction during the study year as a result of previous purchases (Johnson, 2016). Surveys will be created using SurveyMonkey and will be issued using customer email. The survey will be available for 12 weeks and cu stomers will receive email reminders every other week throughout the survey period. Once customers have completed the survey the data will automatically be emailed to the researcher. At the end of the 12 -week period the researcher will gather all data and enter it into SPSS for data analysis. There are 132,645 possible participants for this study. Therefore 1,326 must respond for the study to be considered valid. 2. Is there a correlation between customer satisfaction and increased Widget repairs and returns between 2015 and 2019? To investigate this question the researcher will use a 15 -question survey (see Appendix B) to collect data on customer repairs, returns and, satisfaction of service . The survey will be issued to customers that purchased Widgets betw een 2013 and 2019 assuming that a decrease in sales may be due to possible impacts in customer satisfaction during the study year as a result of previous purchases (Johnson, 2016). Surveys will be created using SurveyMonkey and will be issued using custome r email. The survey will be available for 12 weeks and customers will receive email reminders every other week throughout the survey period. Once customers have completed the survey the data will automatically be emailed to the 4 researcher. At the end of th e 12 -week period the researcher will gather all data and enter it into SPSS for data analysis. There are 132,645 possible participants for this study. Therefore 1,326 must respond for the study to be considered valid. Analysis: This is where you describe the quantitative and/or qualitative measures you will use to analyze the data you collected . This section must be organized by research question. (Restate research question #1 and then describe how you will analyze the data for that question. 1. Is there a correlation between customer satisfaction and decreased sales between 2015 and 2019? This question will investigate customer use, satisfaction, and Widget purchases and seeks to determine a correlation. The independent variable is customer sati sfaction and the dependent variable is sales. A Pearson Correlation will be used to determine the correlation between customer satisfaction and sales. Results will be determined through the acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis using the resulting p-value. If p< .05 the null hypoth esis will be rejected, and the alternate hypothesis will be accepted. I t will be assumed that there is a correlation between customer satisfaction and decreased sales. If p > .05 then the null hypothesis will be accepted, and the alternative hypothesis will be accepted. It will be assumed that there is no correlation between customer satisfaction and decreased sales. 2. Is there a correlation between customer satisfaction and increased Widget repairs and returns between 2015 and 2019? This question will investigate customer repairs, returns and satisfaction and seeks to determine a correlation. The independent variable is customer satisfaction and the dependent variables are service and returns. An ANOVA will be used to determine the correlation between customer satisfaction and service and returns. Results will be determined through the acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis using the resulting p – value. If p< .05 the null hypothesis will be rejected, and the alte rnative hypothesis will be accepted. It will be assumed that there is a correlation between customer satisfaction and decreased sales. If p > .05 then the null hypothesis will be accepted, and the alternative hypothesis will be rejected. It will be assumed that there is no correlation between customer satisfaction and decreased sales. Again, this is an example. Your analysis may require more detail. 3. References Cite all literature in the body of the paper (with parentheticals) and on the reference page usin g APA (American Psychological Association) format. 4. Appendixes 5 The appendix should include copies of your data collection instruments and Gantt Chart . If you are using a n instrument that is already pre -made, you must cite it in the instruments section and include it in the references . Provide a narrative description of the instrument in the instrument section above. 5. Final Comments In this section only, you may refer to yourself in the first person. This is where you take a step back and reflect on the process of designing research. What did you like about it? What was challenging? How can you use the skills you have learned?

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