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Topic- Explainhow Information Technology (IT) promotes getting people who are affected by policies involved in the policy-making process. Cite specific examples.Requirement: 1) Paper, including list of sources, must be in APA format, and MUST cite reference in the body of the paper using APA in-text citation format. A source is any paper or article that will reference in the paper. If you need more information on APA format 2) peer reviewed resources (articles or papers) (1 may be from your annotated bibliography assignment) – I have attached annotated Bibliography here please review)3)Paper MUST address: How Information Technology (IT) promotes getting people who are affected by policies involved in the policy-making process. Cite specific examples.4)Cited sources must directly support your paper (i.e. not incidental references)At least 500 words in length (but NOT longer than 1000 words)
Topic- Explainhow Information Technology (IT) promotes getting people who are affected by policies involved in the policy-making process. Cite specific examples. Requirement: 1) Paper, including list
Running head: POLICY MAKING 0 Annotated Bibliography on Use of IT to Model Behaviour for Policy Making Manaswini Vonteru InfoTech in a Global Economy (ITS-832-02) University of the Cumberlands Instructor Name – Dr. Brett Miller Date – 05/17/2020 Atkinson, J. A., Page, A., Wells, R., Milat, A., & Wilson, A. (2015). A modelling tool for policy analysis to support the design of efficient and effective policy responses for complex public health problems. Implementation Science, 10(1), 26. Retrieved from https://implementationscience.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13012-015-0221-5?optIn=false The authors and the researchers of this article focus the use of IT in policies evolving around the public health. They provide deeper insights with well described illustration on the causes of illnesses and the increased awareness concerning the determinants of the social health care. The article described how the IT was used to impact the rise of strategies that are cross sectorial and highly efficient in preventing incidences on such issues. The tools help in problem solving based on the disease. The given strategies are ineffective in curbing the problem completely. The author illustrated the analytical tools that are used with the help from the research. The researchers identify and prioritize the risk factors of the diseases. This text provides a distinctive exposure of how IT is used in health care to influence the decisions made. The research used a system approach as it is an essential strategy, and it was used to identify the best action to take in the public health action. The system approach was also used in identifying the resources that were essential to generate an optimal impact. The researcher illustrates the model of simulation used in the analysis helping in the betterment when operationalizing the research evidence. Through the article, the authors illustrate the use of IT in supporting their decisions that were made on problems that was complex thus leading to the development in the public sector systems. They also discuss the role of IT in creating foundations that were needed to develop a relationship between the stakeholders, the policy makers and the researchers. Calder, M., Craig, C., Culley, D., de Cani, R., Donnelly, C. A., Douglas, R., … & Hinds, D. (2018). Computational modelling for decision-making: where, why, what, who and how. Royal Society open science, 5(6), 172096. Retrieved from https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rsos.172096 This article begins by acknowledging the fact that there was a need for a more sophisticated computational model. The model would help in making more wide decisions and enhance a better understanding of the potential consequences relating to their choices. The article discusses the importance of using the computational models in policy making as a tool in IT. Some of the advantages that are discussed through the article include the fact that it helps in observational translation including the anticipation of the occasions that were likely to occur in future. Other advantages that the authors describe are that they act as ideas test beds; they managed to extract value from the data and ask questions concerning the behaviour. The article illustrates how the answers derived from the items were used to enhance understanding, designing, managing, and forecasting the works that the process and the systems were involved. The article discussed the stretch of the model through other fields such as science, engineering, economics, finance, business management as well as planning through the urban sectors. Through the article, the authors illustrated how the increase in power in computing and the data availability extension led to the generation of the new forms of the model of computational which was a representation of a larger system targets. IT enabled the researcher to do an act of rule of its operations before they could apply it on the real world occurrence. It helps in evaluating the policies before the implementation stage. IT leads to the exposure of the outcomes that are anticipated before issuing of suggestion of the best practices to use when preventing an occurrence. The authors illustrate how the computational models are used to engage more thoughtful decisions thus creating a better understanding of the complex options leading to better decisions. Gore, R., Lemos, C., Shults, F. L., & Wildman, W. J. (2018). Forecasting changes in religiosity and existential security with an agent-based model. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 21(1). Retrieved from http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/21/1/4.html The authors of this article discuss the policies that are used in aiding the evaluation of policies, their implementation and development. It illustrates the experience of the authors in the disbursement of the models as well as how they are used. Through the text the authors also put into considerations the roles that the models play that are computational in policy making as well as the challenges that they need to overcome for them to develop effective and positive contributions. The authors illustrate how the models help in making the policies through the experimental processes that are experienced in the world of virtual realities. The article also compares the benefits to the randomized pilot policies and the trials for control. The text evaluates the benefits of observations under the model and designing the provisions of understanding the domain policy. Irrespective of the numbers that are generated such as the validation and the calibration of the data being inadequate, the modelling remains valuable. It discusses how it engages various stake holders thus increasing the possibility of the model being utilized and fitting in the purpose. However, it also illustrates need for effective communication between the modellers and the stake holders. The authors also discuss the need of taking into account ethical issues through the process of modelling. The article illustrates the importance of policy modelling as a strategic way of decision making. Mogles, N., Padget, J., Gabe-Thomas, E., Walker, I., & Lee, J. (2018). A computational model for designing energy behaviour change interventions. User modeling and user-adapted interaction, 28(1), 1-34. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11257-017-9199-9 Energy behaviour change created the understanding that there is an intricate delinquent thus created the needs for interventions. It instigated the proposing of intervention measures that were gauged in the framework of scrambled web individuals and the societal aspects. The text discusses the integrations of agent based computational model of energy depletion and the behavioural change intrusions that were founded on the personal ethics and the energy knowledge. From the article, the policy needs to be built to lodge the rich variety of prototypes that could influence the decisions concerning the consumptions. Through the process the researchers used replications as a strategy to gauge persuasive techs that were preceding deployment. Through their study they were able to control more variables thus having supreme control of the real system. The article illustrated how it helped in interpreting the phenomena. The model was reasoned and tested thus providing an insight to the behaviours concerning the specific types of the normal functioning. Through the policy making process IT was used to reduce the complexity that the verbal arguments could not. It connected the determinates of the energy related behaviours which included the energy literacy, social engagements and the values with several generic design strategies thus proposing an area of the persuasive technologies within a single frame work. The author also discussed on how it was used in providing satisfying explanations through multiple levels of an analysis. The main advantage is that it allowed the integration of the data across various levels creating a relation to each other. With the model allowing control across the variables it entrenched into an accommodative decision making scheme for the energy behaviour transformation. Wallace, R., Geller, A., & Ogawa, V. A. (2015). Data and Implementation Needs for Computational Modeling for Tobacco Control. In Assessing the Use of Agent-Based Models for Tobacco Regulation. National Academies Press (US). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK305905/ This article compares various models to come up with the most appropriate method that can be applied in the decision making process in various policies. Among the models that are compared through the article include macro-level models versus the micro level models, computational models versus analytical models evaluating the incorporation of levels that are varying in the representation of specific processes. It describes the motivation of the models through the decisions making processes concerning the policies. The text illustrates various mechanisms through which the human behaviours can vary through the local environment features. With all the models that are discussed in the article, the authors try to illustrate their importance for better and wiser decision making through various policies. The authors illustrate the advancement that is common through the models and how the decisions make evolved around the micro levels models. The article also illustrates the strategies that are used in assessing the uncertainty of the illustrated input models which are translated into difficulty in the outputs of models. The text illustrates the application of the computational model from step to step. Through the discussion, it illustrates the limitations and the strategies that were used to overcome them thus leading to the conclusions on the policies. The authors provide an analysis of the computational model, discussing its impacts in informing the tobacco control policy. In addition, it also illustrates the strengths and the weaknesses of the computational model and the impacts they would have on the policy construction.

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